Music Notation - Sound RelatedEditHere are some of the common music notation terms related to sound and volume in sheet music.
Fortissimo - louder than forte but softer than fortississimo.
Mezzoforte - Moderately loud.
Bass Celf- A clef placing F below middle C on the second-highest line of the staff.
Treble Clef - This is the most commonly encountered clef in modern notation, and is used for most modern vocal music.
Whole Note - Its length is equal to four beats in 4/4 time.
Half Note - A note played for half the duration of a whole note.
Quarter Note - A note played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note.
Eighth Note - A note played for one eighth the duration of a whole note.
Beam - Connect eighth notes and notes of shorter value.
Tuplet -A number of notes of irregular duration are performed within the duration of a given number of notes of regular time value.
Trill - A rapid alternation between the specified note and the next higher note.
Triad or Chord - Several notes sounded simultaneously or in succession.
Tie - Indicates that the two (or more) notes joined together are to be played as one note with the time values added together.
Marcato - The note is played somewhat louder or more forcefully than a note with a regular accent mark.
Staccato - This indicates that the note is to be played shorter than notated.
Slur - Indicates that two or more notes are to be played in one physical stroke, one uninterrupted breath.
Sharp - Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone.
Sforzando - Literally "forced", denotes an abrupt, fierce accent on a single sound or chord.
Segno - Mark used with dal segno.
Piano - Soft.
Pianississimo - Extremely soft.
Pianissimo - Very soft
Natural - Cancels a previous accidental, or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the prevailing key signature
Mezzo piano - Literally, half as soft as piano.
Accent - The note is played louder or with a harder attack than surrounding unaccented notes.
Glissando - A continuous, unbroken glide from one note to the next that includes the pitches between.
Fortississimo - Extremely loud.
Forte-Piano - A section of music in which the music should initially be played loudly.
Forte - Loud.
Flat - Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone.
Double sharp - Raises the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.
Double flat - Lowers the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.
Dotnote - Placing dots to the right of the corresponding notehead lengthens the note's duration.
Dimineuendo - A gradual decrease in volume.
Dalsegno - Tells the performer to repeat playing of the music starting at the nearest segno.
Dacapo - Tells the performer to repeat playing of the music from its beginning.
Cut-time - This symbol represents 2/2 time, indicating two half-note beats per measure.
Crecendo - A gradual increase in volume.
Commontime - This symbol is a throwback to sixteenth century rhythmic notation, when it represented 2/4, or "imperfect time". Today it represents 4/4.
Coda - Indicates a forward jump in the music to its ending passage, marked with the same sign.
Alto Clef - This clef points to the line (or space, rarely) representing middle C.
Caesura - Indicates a brief, silent pause, during which time is not counted.
Breath - In a score, this symbol tells the performer or singer to take a breath.